Constitutional Law-2

                                              UNIT - I
1. What do mean by SLP? Nature and scope of the SLP. Explain the circumstances when SLP would be maintainable in the Apex Court.
 INRODUCTION: - The Supreme Court of India is authorized to grant in its discretion special leave appeal from any judgment decree determination sentence or order or in any case or matter passed any court or tribunal in the territory of India. The only exception to this power of the Supreme Court is with regard to any judgment etc. of any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces. NATURE & SCOPE OF SPECIAL LEAVE PETITION:-
1. Article 136 of the constitution of India vests very wide powers in the Supreme Court.  The power given under this article is in the nature of a Special residuary power which is exercisable outside the purview of ordinary law. This article deals with ordinary appeals to the Supreme Court in the cases where the needs of justice demand interference by the highest court of the land. This article has the widest possible terms.  It vests the Supreme Court a plenary jurisdiction in the matter of entertaining and hearing appeals by granting Special Leave against any kind of judgement or order made by any court or tribunal except Military Tribunal DISTINCTION BETWEEN ARTICLE 136 AND ART. 132-135:-The power of the Supreme Court under Article 136 is not fettered with any of the limitations contained in articles 132 to 135 .a) In Jyotendra Singhi v/s S.T.Tripath-1993, it has been held that party cannot gain advantage by approaching the Supreme Court directly under Art.136 instead of approaching High Court under art. 226.  This is not a limitation inherent in Art. 136, it is a limitation which the Supreme Court imposes itself. b) How & When an appeal can be entertained by Supreme Court: - Art. 132 to 135 that an appeal can entertained by the Supreme Court against the final order but under article 136 the word order is not qualified by the adjective ‘final’ and hence the court can grant special leave to appeal even from interlocutory order. c) Under Articles 132 to 134 appeal lies against the final order of High Court while under Art. 136 the Supreme Court can grant special leave for appeal from any court or tribunal from any subordinate court below the High Court. The wide discretionary power with which this Court is vested under it is to be exercised in granting Special Leave to appeal in exceptional cases only. In case of D.C.M. v/s Commissioner of Income tax-1955, court held that it being an
Exceptional and overriding power it has to be exercised sparingly and with caution and only in Special extraordinary situations. Beyond that it is not possible to fetter the exercise of this power by and set formula or rule.
d) Normally the Supreme Court does not interfere with concurrent findings of the trail court and the High Court unless there is sufficient to do so as held in a case of Sultan Ahmad v/s State of Bihar-1975, Supreme Court had to enter into the merit of the case in order to prevent grave and substantial injustice to the appellant who was evicted as a result of the wrong interpretation of the law.
e) In an appeal under article 136 the Supreme Court does not allow the appellant to raise new plea for the first time as held in a case of Mani subha rao v/s Ganeshapa-1978.
IN CRIMINAL CASES: - The power of the Supreme Court under article 136 has more frequently been invoked in criminal appeals. As held in a case of Haripada Dey v/s State of West Bengal-1956, that it will grant special leave only if there has been gross miscarriage of justice or departure from legal procedure.
In Judicial Service Assn. v/s State of Gujrat-1991, the Supreme Court held that under article 136 the Supreme Court has wide power to interfere and correct the judgment and orders passed by any court or tribunal in the country.
In a judgment Union Carbide Corpn. V/s Union of India-1991: the court held that under article 136 the court has inherent power to withdraw or transfer or original suit pending in the District Court of Bhopal and dispose of the same and also criminal proceedings in the course of hearing of appeals.
M.R.Dhawan v/s Pratap Bhanu-1978, the appellant was tried by the trial Magistrate and was discharged on the ground that no prima facie case was established against him. The session Judge affirmed the order of the Magistrate. The Supreme Court held that he would not normally interfere with the discretion exercised by the High Court.  Private party can file appeal under Art. 136 challenging acquittal:- It is a land mark judgement in Ramakant Rai v/s Madan Rai-2004, S.Court held that where an accused is acquitted by the High Court and no appeal against the acquittal is filed by the State, a private can file appeal under art. 136.  At the end it is concluded here that where the High Court committed serious errors of law in appreciating the evidence and based its decisions on conjectures then the interference of Supreme Court is justified to reverse the
Acquittal by the High Court and convicting the accused and sentencing them to life imprisonment.







2. WHAT ARE THE CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES PROVIDED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS? COMPARE IN THIS REGARD THE JURISDICTION OF HIGH COURT UNDER ART. 226 WITH THAT OF SUPREME COURT UNDER ART. 32.
INTRODUCTION:- In the language of Law the writs as extraordinary remedies which are issued upon cause shown in case where the ordinary legal remedies are inapplicable or inadequate. According to Justice Hidayat Ullah, “The word, ‘writ’ has been used in the same sense of a written document under the seal of the court issued to a person or authority.”
KINDS OF WRITS: - There are two types of Writs:-
i)           The prerogative Writs:- The prerogative writs are ancient remedial process of an extraordinary nature which have from the earliest time issued from the court Bench in which the sovereign was always present in compensation of Law. The jurisdiction to issue such writs was later on extended to the High Court of Justice & Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1925.
ii)         Original or Judicial writs:- The original or judicial writs commence between party to party and they issue as of course.
WRITS - WHEN REQUIRED TO BE ISSUED:- Under article 32 and 226, the constitution of Indian confers upon the Supreme Court and the High Court respectively the power to issue direction orders or writs including writs in the nature of Hebeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition,Quo-warranto and Certiorari for the Fundamental Rights and in the High Court for any other purpose. Refer case of Fertilizer Corporation Kamgar Union v/s Fertilizer Corporation -1981:
1.   HABEAS CORPUS:- The literal meaning of Harbeas Corpus is, you may have the body. The writ of Habeas copus is a writ for securing the liberty of person where such liberty is wrongly taken away. It is an effective means of immediate release from unlawful detention whether in prison or in private custody.  The writ consists in a command from the Court of the production of the person detained or imprisoned and through this writ the Court makes an inquiry into the cause of imprisonment.
WHO CAN APPLY:- An application for Habeas Corpus can be made by either the prisoner himself or by any other person on his behalf. The Supreme Court in Sunil Batra v/s Delhi Administration-1980:  It was held that the technicalities and the legal necessaities are no impediment the court entertaining even an informal communication as a proceeding for “Habeas Corpus”.
 WHEN CAN THE WRITARE ISSUE:-1. The applicant or the person for whom the application is made must be in the custody. 2. The application of Habeas Corpus ordinarily should be by the husband or wife or son of detenu. 3. All the formalities relating to arrest and detention was based on mala-fides e.g. long delay in communication of the grounds of arrest. 4. The order of arrest must be defective in substance. 5. Vague and indefinite grounds of detention can also be one of the good grounds for getting a writ of Habeas Corpus issued. 6. Order of detention is tainted with irregularity.
        WHEN THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS CANNOT ISSUED
If the application is made to High Court and place where the person is detained is outside the jurisdictional limits of that High court.
I)           When during the pendency of writ petition the person in question is released.
II)        When detention is in execution of any sentence on indictment of a criminal charge.
III)     When a person is detained under a preventive detention law.
2.  WRIT OF MANDAMUS:- Writ of Mandamus means, “ The writ of mandamus is a high prerogative writ of a most extensive remedial nature and is in the form of a command issuing from the High Court of Justice, directed to any person, corporation or inferior court requiring him or them to do some particular things therein specified which appertains to his or their office and is in the nature of a public duty.”
IN WRIT OF MANDAMUS THERE MAY BE COMMAND
The writ of mandamus to do a particular thing or to abstain from doing a particular thing i.e. the command may be either positive or negative. It lies in respect of rights and duties of a purely moral character. Where there is no duty but only a power to do a thing mandamus will not lie to enforce the exercise of the power unless the power is coupled with a duty to exercise it.
WHEN THE WRIT IS GRANTED:-  The writ of mandamus is granted to a person whose rights have been infringed, in the following situations:-
1.      The petitioner has a legal right.
2.      That legal right has been infringed.
3.      That the reason of infringement was the non performance of the corresponding duty by the public authority.
4.      The petitioner has demanded the performance of that legal duty by that public authority and the authority has refused to act.
5.      The duty sought to be enforced must be of a public nature, i.e. created by some statute and not of a private nature.
WHEN WRIT OF MANDAMUS CANNOT BE LIED:- The writ of mandamus does not lie in the following circumstances:-
1.When the duty is to do ministerial work. 2 When the duty is merely discretionary.
3.To enforce contractual obligation. A Pb.Engg.College v/s Sanjay Gulati-1983.
3. WRIT OF PROHIBITION:- A writ of Prohibition is a judicial writ issued by a court of Superior jurisdiction directing an inferior court for the purpose of preventing the inferior court from usuriping a jurisdjiction with which it is not legally vested or to compel courts entrusted with judicial duties to keep within the limits of their jurisdiction.  Thus the writ of prohibition lies only against judicial and quasi-judicial and quasi-judicial authorities. Refer a case of A.G.Gubert v/s Registrar High Court Allahabad-1959 in this regard.
WHEN THE WRIT CAN BE ISSUED:- The writ of Prohibition can only be issued when the following situations arise:-
a.     When both excess of jurisdiction and absence of jurisdiction, violation of natural justice, fraud, contravention of the laws of the land.
b.    Writ of Prohibition can be issued to a judicial or quasi-judicial body which is inferior to the issuing court.
Here it is pertinent to mention here that the existence of an alternative remedy is no bar to the issue of prohibition.
3.    A WRIT OF CERTIORARI:- It is a command or order by the superior court to an inferior court or tribunal to transmit a record or cause or matter pending before them to the superior court not to proceed with the case which is not within its jurisdiction and also to quash any order made by the court in such a case. If the order of inferior court is found to be without jurisdiction or against the principles of natural justice, it will be quashed as held in the case of Champalal v/s The commissioner of Income Tax-1970.
WHO MAY APPLY:- Any person whose legal right has been violated can apply for the issue of this writ.  Any person may on behalf of a group of persons or society or persons at a large may apply.
GROUNDS ON WHICH WRIT IS ISSUED:-When the following circumstances or   arise the writ of Certiorari can be granted:-
1.    The act, order or judgment in respect of which the writ is sought to be issued should be the act, order or judgment of an inferior court or statutory body exercising judicial or quasi-judicial functions.
2.    Such courts or body must have acted in absence or in excess of the jurisdiction vested in it the principles of natural justice so as to render such act order or judgment invalid.
3.    Where there is violation of the principles of natural justice so as to render such act order or judgment invalid.
4.    When there is an error apparent on the face of record.
As it has been held in the case of Gujrat Steel Tubes v/s Its Mazdoor Sabha -1980. As held by the court that every order cannot be corrected merely because it is wrong.  It can be quashed if it is vitiated by the fundamental flow of gross miscarriage of justice.
The grounds mentioned above are sufficient to quash the orders are self explanatory.
5.    WRIT OF QUO-WARRANTO:- A writ of Quo-Warranto is issues by the court seeks from the person to whom it is issued information as to the warrant or authority by which the said person supports his right to an office franchise or liberty.
It lies against a person who claims or usurps an office franchise or liberty with respect to which information is sought so that such person’s right to the same may be determined in the light of the authority or warranto cited by such person in support thereof.  In case of D.C.Jain v/s University of Jodhpur-1977:
WHEN THE WRIT OF QUO-WARRANTO IS ISSUED:- The writ of quo-warranto can be issued when there is:-
1.    When an illegal usurpation of public office by an unauthorized person.
2.    When the public office and not a private office is of a substantive nature.
3.    The person proceed against has been in actual possession and is the user of particular office in question.
COMPARISION OF THE JURISDICTION OF THE H. C. & SUPREME COURT
I)       The right guaranteed by article 32 can be exercised for the enforcement of fundamental rights. It can be invoked only for the enforcement of fundamental rights and no for other purpose. 
II)     The power of High Court to issue writs cannot be in derogation of Supreme Court under Art. 226. An order under art.32 will supersede the orders of the High Court previously passed.
III)  An application under Art. 32 may always be made first to the Supreme Court since art. 32 is itself a fundamental right. There is no need to resort to Art. 226 before approaching the Supreme Court under Art. 32.
IV)  Under art. 226 the jurisdiction of the High court to issue writ is limited to its territorial jurisdiction i.e. within state whereas Supreme Court can issue the writs against any authority throughout the territory of India.







3. Procedure of removal of Judges of the Supreme Court with the help of decided cases.
PROCEDURE OF REMOVAL OF JUDGES:- A judge may be removed from his office by an order of the President only on grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity. The order of the President can only be passed after it has been addressed to both Houses of Parliament in the same session. The address must be supported by a majority of total membership of that House and also by a majority of not less than two thirds of the members of that House present and voting under article 124 clause 4 of the constitution of India.
               The procedure of the presentation of an address for investigation and proof for misbehavior or incapacity of a Judge will be determined by Parliament by law on the basis of provisions laid down in article 124(5) of the constitution. The security of tenure of the Supreme Court Judge has been ensured by this provision of the Constitution.   
A very important judgement in the case of K. Veeraswami v/s Union Of India-1991, It was held that a Judge of the Supreme Court and High court can be prosecuted and convicted for criminal misconduct.
IMPEACHMENT OF JUSTICE V. RAMASWAMI:- Mr. V.Ramaswami was a sitting Judge of Supreme Court of India. He was appointed as a Judge of Madras High Court during 1987. He was transferred to Punjab & Haryana High Court as Chief Justice. He was charged with having exceeded limits on telephone expenses and misuse of official cars.  Motion sponsored by 108 MP’s of Ninth Lok Sabha for his impeachment.
         The committee was constituted for enquiry and Mr. Ramaswami challenged the findings of Enquiry committee. The Supreme Court held that he has no right to challenge the findings of the Inquiry Committee.  The impeachment however was defeated in the Lok Sabha as it failed to get support of the two-third of the members present and voting.
Essentially to keep judiciary independent of the executive.  The requirement of two-third majority in Parliament could not have been conceived to provide safeguard to a Judge whose conduct was under a cloud. The biggest victim of his conduct has been the Judiciary.
FORCED RESIGNATION – NOT PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION: AFFECTS THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY.
In a Landmark judgment in C.Ravi Chandra Iyer v/s Justice A.M.Bhattacharya -1995, The Supreme Court held that only the Chief Justice of India considered to be the first among judges who can take action against an High Court Judge or Chief Justice who has been observed bad conduct.  The division bench of judges gave a legal sanction to an inhouse procedure by judiciary only to be adopted by the Chief justice of India for taking action against a High Court Judge of chief.
The court under article 217 (1) provided the procedure for removal of a Judge from his office has been laid down no other procedure can be adopted. The supreme court held that the resolution passed by Bar Council and Bar Association against the Chief Justice of Bombay, alleging bad conduct and pressurize or coercing him to resign.
Highlighting the importance of judicial activism of the Apex court and High court Sh. K. Ramaswamy Justice observed that, The judge cannot retain his passive role when he administers the law under the constitution to give effect to the constitutional ideals.
The Judge must act independently if he is to perform the function as expected of him and he must feel sure that such action of his will not lead to his downfall.




4. Discuss the law relating to transfer of judges from one High Court to another. Can such orders of transfer be judicially reviewed?
INTRODUCTION: - Provisions made in article 124 of the constitution of India that the President of India is required to consult legal experts regarding transfer of Judge from one High Court to another. The President however has a right to differ from them and take a contrary view. Consultation does not mean concurrence and the President is not bound by it.
Definition of Article 222:-The President may after consultation with the Chief Justice of India transfer a judge from one High Court to any other High Court.
When a Judge has been transferred he shall during the period he serves after the commencement of the constitution Act-1963 as a Judge of the other High Court be entitled to receive compensatory allowance in addition to his salary. Such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law or President my fix.
1.    In S.P. Gupta v/s Union of India-1982, a popular case regarding transfers of Judges. The Supreme Court agreed with the meaning of the term consultation as explained by the majority in Sankalchand  Sheth’s case-1977. However the only ground on which the decision of the government can be challenged is that it is based on mala fide and irrelevant considerations.
It means that the ultimate power to transfer or appoint judges is vested in the Executive from whose dominance and subordination was sought to be protected. The Supreme Court had used its power by ruling that constitution functionaries had merely a consultative role and that power of transfer and appointment of judges is solely and exclusively vested in the Central Government.
It is submitted that the majority judgment of Supreme Court in the judge’s transfer was bound to have an adverse affect on the independence and impartiality of the Judiciary. Bhagwati, J., has therefore in his judgment suggested for the appointment of a Judicial Committee for recommendations in this regard.
In historic judgment in S.C. Advocate-on –Record Association v/s Union of India-1993, popularly known as Judges Transfer case a nine judge bench of the Supreme Court by a 7/2 majority overruled its earlier judgment in the above case and held that in the matter of appointment of the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court’s the Chief Justice of India should have primacy.
                The matter was brought before the court through PIL writ petition filed by an advocate of the Supreme Court seeking relief of filling up vacancies in the higher judiciary. The court laid down detailed guidelines governing appointment and transfer of Judges and held that the greatest significance should be attached to the view of the Chief Justice.
          That no appointment or transfer of any judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court can be made unless it is conformity with the opinion of the Chief Justice of India.  Only in exceptional cases and for strong reasons the names recommended by the Chief Justice may not be considered for transfer.
 Can such orders of transfer be judiciary reviewed:- Sole opinion of Chief Justice without following consultation process, not binding on government it can be reviewed judiciary. In re Presidential Reference-1999, a nine judge’s bench of Supreme Court has held that the recommendations made by the Chief Justice on the transfer of judges of High Courts without following the consultation process are not binding on Government.  The court gave its opinion on the nine questions raised by the President under Art.143, showing controversy over the recommendations by CJI. The court held that the sole individual opinion of CJ does not constitute consultation of within the meaning of article. Chief Justice should consult collegiums of four senior most judges of the S.C.; he should not send the recommendation to the govt. The collegiums must include the successor Chief Justice. Collegiums will send his recommendations in writing to the Govt., for further action.



5. Explain in detail the Powers of High Court.
INTRODUCTION: - Under article 227 every High Court has the following powers in their jurisdiction. Article 225(a) gives jurisdiction to High Court (b) the law administered in the existing High Court. (c) The powers of the Judges in relation to the administration of justice in the court, (d) the power to make rule of the High Court shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this constitution. The powers of the High Courts can be changed both by the Union Parliament and the State Legislatures.
POWER OF HIGH COURTS:- There are following powers of the High Court:-
1.    Power of superintendence over all courts: - Art. 227 of the constitution provide the power of superintendence conferred on High Court by this article is a very wide power. The High Court has the power of superintendence over all courts and tribunals through- out the territory in relation to exercises his jurisdiction powers. For this purpose High Court may call returns from, to make & issue general rules and prescribed forms for regulating the work and Accounts, to setup the fees to be given to the sheriff, clerks, attorneys, advocates and pleaders. However this power does not extend over any Court or Tribunal constituted by law relating to the Armed Forces.
2.    Power under article 226: This power is wider than the power conferred on the High Court to control the inferior courts through writs under article 226. It is not confined only to administrative superintendence but also judicial superintendence over all subordinate courts within its jurisdiction as held in case of Waryam Singh v/s Amar Nath-1954.
3.    To keep the inferior courts within their limits:- The power of superintendence conferred on the High court by article 227 being extraordinary to be exercised most sparingly and only in appropriate cases in order to keep subordinate courts within the bounds of their authority and not for correcting mere error of facts however erroneous those may be as held in a case of Waryam singh v/s Amarnath-1954.
4.    Transfer of certain cases to High Courts:-Under article 228 the High Court has power o withdraw a case from a subordinate court, if it is satisfied that a case pending in a subordinate court involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. It may then either dispose of the case itself or may determine the said question of law and return the case to subordinate court with a copy of its judgment. The subordinate court will then decide the case in conformity with the High Court’s judgment.
5.    To take disciplinary action: - Art. 235, the High Court has disciplinary jurisdiction over subordinate court. It has been held that the Government had no jurisdiction to take disciplinary action against a District Judge.  It is the High Court alone which is competent to exercise his disciplinary power against a judge of the inferior court as held in a case of State of Haryana v/s Inder Parkash-1976 and State of West Bengal v/s Nripendra nath Banerjee-1966. It was held & the High Court quashed an order of the government for compulsory retiring a senior subordinate judge. It was also held that the transfer of the District Judge was also beyond the power of the Governor and had to be made by High Court the power vested in it by article 235 as held in a case of State of Assam v/s Ranga Mohammed-1967.
6.    CPC amendment does not affect High Court’s Power:- In a case of Surya Dev Rai v/s Ram Chandra Rai-1976, it was held that what was the impact of amendment in section 115 of CPC brought about on the power and jurisdiction of the High court. The Supreme Court as held that the amendment in sec.115 of the CPC does not affect the jurisdiction and the powers of the High Court under article 226 and 227. The judgments passed by the subordinate courts are open to challenge and continue to be subject to certiorari and supervisory jurisdiction of High Court.
7.    Power to issue orders of  writ :- Article 226 provides that notwithstanding anything in Article 32 every High Court shall have the power throughout the territorial limits in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction to issue to any person or authority including the appropriate cases any government within those territories directions orders of writ in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari or any of them for the enforcement of fundamental rights but also other legal rights as is clear from the words any other purpose. In a landmark judgment in L. Chandra Kumar v/s Union of India-1997, court held that the power of judiciary over legislative action vested in the High Court’s under article 226.
8.    Interim Relief: - In 44th. amendment Act-1978, article 226 and added a new clause (3) for regulating the procedure regarding the power of the High Court to issue interim orders which are passed against a party without:
i)                Furnishing him the copies of such petition.
ii)              Without giving him an opportunity of being heard.
However if any party makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order the High Court shall be bound to dispose of such an application within two weeks. It the High Court fails to dispose of the application within the period of two weeks the interim order shall on the expiry of the said period stand automatically vacated.  The power to issue interlocutory order under art.226 should be used with circumspection.

6. Write a critical note on the Power of Supreme Court to punish for its contempt. Can S. Court punish for contempt of courts subordinate to it?
 INTRODUCTION:- Critical Note on the Power of Supreme Court to Punish for its Contempt:-Supreme Court shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself under article 129 of the constitution.
1.    COURT OF RECORD:  A court of record is a court whose records are admitted to be of evidentiary value and they are not to be questioned when they are produced before the court. Once a court is made a Court of Record, its power to punish for contempt necessarily follows from that position. Contempt of Courts Act-1971 defines the powers of courts for punishing contempt of courts and regulates their procedure as in the, civil contempt: means willful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other process of a court. Criminal contempt:-Publication written, spoken or by words or by visible representation of any matter or doing of any act of scandalizes, prejudices or interferes or to interfere or to obstruct administration of justice. Case Mohd.Aslam v/s Union of India- 1994.
In Delhi Judicial Service Assn. v/s State of Gujrat-1991: It has been held that under Art. 129 the Supreme Court has power to punish a person for the contempt of itself as well as of its subordinate courts.
2. Ayodhya Case C.M of U.P. punished for Contempt: - In a case of Mohd.Aslam v/s Union of India-1994, the Supreme Court held that the C.M. of Uttar Pradesh Mr. Kalyan Singh was guilty of Contempt of Court for violating the order of the court not to allow a permanent structure on the disputed land. The court awarded a token sentence of one day and a fine of Rs.2000/-.
3. Manipur Assembly Speaker Borobabu’s case:-The Supreme Court directed the Union government to produce before the court Manipur speaker sh. Borobabu who had committed contempt of court by violating the order. The Judge said that it is our constitutional duty which required us to make this order to uphold the Majesty of law and justify the confidence of the people that no one in this country is above than law. The contempt proceedings were dropped against him when he appeared before the court and tendered an unconditional apology.
4. In an important Judgment in the case of Hindustan Times-1994: The Supreme Court held that neither the Supreme Court nor the High Court has power to direct dispossession of any one in a contempt. Under article 215 court punish for contempt of court includes all necessary and incidental powers to effectuate that jurisdiction.
5. The court cannot invest itself with the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Bar Council of India and State Bar Council to punish an advocate for contempt of the Court. This power is vested in the Disciplinary Committee of the Bar Council under the Advocate’s Act. A complaint of professional misconduct is required to be tried by the Disciplinary Committee of Bar Council.
 Can Supreme Court punish for contempt of courts subordinate:- In re Vinay Chandra mishra -1995, Supreme Court has examined the scope and extent of the power of contempt in detail and held that under article 129, 215 and 142 of the constitution it has power suo motu to take cognizance of contempt proceedings against the contemnor. The Supreme Court not only with the power to punish for contempt of itself but also of lower courts and tribunals in its capacity as the highest court of record and also charged both the appellate and superintending power over lower courts and tribunals as detailed in the constitution.
Similarly a Senior IPS Officer Mr. M.S.Ahlawat was sentenced to one year’s rigorous imprisonment and punishment for criminal contempt for fabrication and forgery of document in connection with a case of wrongful confinement of two minor boys.
Similarly in another case a senior IAS officer of Karnataka, Mr. Vasudevan was sent to jail for contempt of court.
It is ethically submitted that the object for vesting such a power in the Court was to uphold the majesty of law, the rule of law which is the foundation of democratic society. The judiciary is the guardian of the rule of law. Judiciary has special function to perform and to see that all individuals and institutions including the executive, legislative act within the framework of not only law but also the fundamental law of the land.
CONCLUSION:- In a number of cases the Supreme Court has exercised its power of contempt to punish erring bureaucrats who were either found guilty of disobeying certain Court’s orders for enforcing fundamental rights of citizens or were charged with corruption.  In 1995 or the first time since independence a senior IAs officer was convicted for contempt of courts and sentenced to imprisonment by the highest Court.  The Senior IAS officer of Manipur who was found guilty under the Prevention of Corruption Act-1947, for awarding a contract on exorbitant rates to a person who was blacklisted by him (refer a Hindustan Times of Oct.15, l995).









                                                 UNIT-II
7. Discuss the relationship between President of India and his Council of Minister in India. Does President of India have any discretionary powers?    Ans:- Relationship between president council of ministers:- There shall be a President of India, the executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution of India. Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions laid down in the Constitution the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union shall be vested in the President and to exercise of these powers shall be regulated by law.
However the President of India shall prevent the Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President, and be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the government of any State or other authority.
The Council of Ministers:- Article 74 of the Constitution of India provides that, “There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advice the President in the exercise of his functions.” The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and other ministers shall be appointed by President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The total strength of the ministers shall not exceed 15 per cent of the total number of members of the House of People.
1.    Before a Minister enters his office the President shall administer to him the oath of office and secrecy as provided under article 75(4) of the constitution. The Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Parliament.
2.    The President to appoint a Council of Ministers and he must exercise his functions with the aid and advice of the Ministers. 
3.    The relation between the President and the Council of Minister is confidential because article 74(2) of the constitution provides that the nature of advice tendered by Ministers shall not be enquired into by the courts.
4.    The Council of Ministers consists of three categories of Ministers,  i) Minister of Cabinet rank ii) Minister of state  iii) Deputy Minister.
5.    The Cabinet is the smaller body of Council of Ministers. The council of ministers shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People.
6.    That in case of a Minister who for a period of six consecutive months is not a member of either House of Parliament shall cease to be a Minister at the expiration of that period.
       


Does President of India have any discretionary powers?
Yes the President of India may use his discretionary powers when:-
1. In case of multiple party systems as it prevails in India, if none is in a position to gain required majority and a coalition government is to be formed, the President can exercise a little discretion and select the leader of any party who in his opinion can form a stable ministry. However it has been suggested that in such situation the President must keep the certain conventions before finalizing his action in this regard.
2. Mr. Charan Singh: The President invited the leader of opposition Mr.Y. B. Chavan who had moved the no confidence motion to form the Govt. After four day of hectic activities Mr. Chavan informed the President that he was not able to form the government and up-to now the action of the President was not subject to any criticism. Thereafter the President adopted an unusual course and asked Mr. Charan Singh the leader of alliance and Mr. Desai the leader of largest single party to submit the list of supporters, Mr.Singh showed a list of 262 whereas Mr.Desai list contained only 236 members. It was clear that Mr. Singh did not have an absolute majority in the House which should be of 270. On the ground that Mr. Singh had the supporter of larger member of members than that of Mr.Desai, The President invited him to form an alternative government but since the President knew that Mr. Singh had no absolute majority he asked him to seek a vote of confidence in the House within three weeks time.
3) In Setal Parsad Sexena v/s Union of India-1985, it was held that the continuance of Shri Charan Singh as a caretaker Prime Minister ever after he had failed to seek a mandate of the Lok Sabha three weeks after assuming the office of the Prime Minister as directed by the President. The Janata Party was still the largest single party in the House consisting of 205 members.
4) The President did not follow the convention of calling the leader of the opposition. The President had said that he did not want to encourage defections by calling upon Mr.Jagjivan Ram as a leader of the party of 205 members. This appears to be fantastic because he made a great defector Mr.Charan Singh as Prime Minister.
 5) Thus it is clear that though in the above circumstances the President can exercise his discretion in appointing the Prime Minister but it will certainly be better to lay down certain conventions in this matter so as to avoid the situation created by the unconstitutional action of the President.
8. What are the parliamentary Privileges? What privileges given to the legislative chambers, their committees and members in India.
PARLIAMENTARY PRIVILEGES:-The constitutional provisions regarding privileges of the State Legislature and Parliament are identical. While the article 105 deals with the privileges of Parliament whereas Act 194 deals with the privileges of State Legislature. There are two privileges:-
1.Freedom of Speech :- That there shall be freedom of speech in parliament and that no member of parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof under the article 105 of the constitution.
                  This act gives absolute immunity from courts for anything said within the four walls of the House and if a member repeats or publishes a defamatory speech made by him within the House, he does so, on his own responsibility and risk and held for prosecution under Sec.500 IPC.
                 Art.121 prohibits any discussion in Parliament with respect to the conduct of a Judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court in discharge of his duties. Under rule 349 to 356 of Lok Sabha use of unparliamentarily language or unparliamentarily conduct of a member is prohibited
2. Right of Publication of its Proceedings: - That no Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceeding in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof and no person shall be liable in respect of publication by or under the authority of either on the basis of provisions laid down in article 105(2). In a case of Surendra v/s Nebakrishna-1958, who was an editor of a newspaper, was held guilty of committing contempt of court for publishing a statement of the House. It was held that there were many advantages to the public which has the deepest interest in knowing what passes in Parliament.
                    The object of the protection is to enable the members to speak their mind in Parliament freely and fearlessly. The court held that the MP’s who had taken bribe and voted in Parliament against no confidence motion brought against the Narsimba Rao government are entitled to the protection of Art. 105(2). The Parliamentary Proceedings Act-1956 was passed which provides that no person shall be liable to any proceeding civil or criminal in any court in respect of the publication of the report of the proceedings of either House of Parliament unless it is proved that publication of such proceeding expressly ordered to be expunged by the speaker.


OTHER PRIVILEGES:-  On the basis of provisions laid down in article 105(3) of the constitution of India that the privileges of the House of Parliament and its members were to be those which were enjoyed by the members of the House of Commons in England on 26.01.l950.  This article stands amended during 1978 in its 44th Amendment Act. This amendment retained all the existing privileges which were enjoyed by the members of Legislative in India. This means that the privileges of each House of Parliament and State Legislatures will now be same as existed immediately before coming into force of the 44th. Amendment.  New Privileges however can be defined by law and made by Parliament are as under:- i)Freedom from Arrest:- A member of the Parliament cannot be arrested or imprisoned on a civil proceeding within a period of 40 days before and 40days after the session of the Parliament. This privilege is available against civil arrest and does not extend to arrest or imprisonment on a criminal charge for contempt of court or to preventive detention. Case of Smt. Indira Gandhi v/s Raj Narain-1975. Ii) Right to exclude strangers from its proceedings:-In modern times secret sessions are held only on exceptional occasions. Voters must be kept informed about the working of their representatives in the Legislature. Iii) Right to prohibit to publication of its Reports and Proceedings: In a famous Searchlight case-1959, it was held by the court that publication of expunged portion of speech constituted a breach of the privilege of the House. Iv)Right to regulate Internal Procedings:-In a case of S.M.Sharma v/s Sri Krishna Sinha-1959, it was held by the court that the validity of the proceedings inside the Legislature of a State cannot be called in question on the allegation that the procedure laid down by law has not been strictly followed. The House has exclusive right to regulate its own internal proceedings under article 122. V)Right to punish Members or Outsiders for contempt:- Each House has the power to punish its members for “Contempt of privilege.” A member may be suspended or expelled from the House or may be sentenced to jail. Famous example of Mrs. Indira Gandhi was expelled from her membership and she was sentenced to jail, prorogued for committing contempt of Parliament while she was PM. Vi) Privileges and Fundamental Rights:-As provided in article 19(1) guarantees for freedom of speech and expression to every citizen of India but this right is subject to reasonable restrictions under art. 19(2), whereas in art. 105 is an independent right and is not subject to any restrictions under Art.19 (1). Thus it is clear that the freedom of speech under art.105 is different from the freedom of speech under article-19, which is subject to restrictions.




9.    What do you understand from the term Impeachment of the President. Discuss various steps required to be taken for impeachment of President?
INTRODUCTION: - The President of India can be removed from the office for violation of the constitution by impeachment. Such a motion of impeachment can be initiated by any House of Parliament In such a case one fourth of the members, of the house, intending to move such a motion have to serve a fourteen days notice in writing. After the completion of the stipulated period the motion is discussed and put to vote.
If two-thirds of the members support the motion that it is passed for consideration of the other House. The other House on receiving the motion investigates the changes. The President is allowed the opportunity to present his defence either in person or through his nominee. If the House despite the defence supports the motion by two-thirds majority the President stands impeached.
                                The President of India is entitled to certain legal immunity during his tenure. He is not answerable to any court of law while discharging his responsibilities. He cannot be arrested or imprisoned in connection with any civil or criminal case. However civil suits may be instituted against him by serving at least two months notice.
DEFINITION OF IMPEACHMENT: - Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to remove a Government official without that official's agreement. The second stage is conviction.
Impeachment is so rare that the term can be misunderstood. A typical misconception is to confuse it with involuntary removal from office. In fact, it is only a legal statement of charges, paralleling an indictment in criminal law. An official who is impeached faces a second legislative vote (whether by the same body or another), which determines conviction, or failure to convict, on the charges embodied by the impeachment. Most Constitutions require a supermajority to convict. The word "impeachment" derives from Latin roots expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, and has analogues in the modern French verb to prevent and the modern English impede.
The process should not be confused with a recall election. A recall election is usually initiated by voters and can be based on "political charges", for example mismanagement, whereas impeachment is initiated by a constitutional body (usually a legislative body) and is usually based, but not always, on indictable offences. The process of removing the official is also different.
Impeachment is a British invention. Following the British example, the Constitutions of Virginia (1776) and Massachusetts (1780) and other States thereafter adopted the impeachment doctrine. In private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges.



       PROCEDURE OF IMPEACHMENT OF PRESIDENT OF INDIA
             Under Article 61, (1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament.
(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless-
(a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days' notice in writing, signed by not less than 1/4th of the total number of members of the House, has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and
(b) Such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the total membership of the House.
(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.
(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed."
CONCLUSION:- The word 'Impeachment' is an origin of British convention which means to remove a Government official without any official agreement and after the impeachment conviction has been provided to that official. In India, it is a quasi-judicial procedure and President can only be impeached on the ground of violation of the Constitution.




UNIT-III
10. Discuss how the legislative Powers and Relations between the Union and the States are distributed under the constitution?
INTRODUCTION:- The distribution of powers is an essential feature of federalism. The object for which a federal State is formed involves a division of authority between the National Government and the separate States. In fact the basic principle of federation is that the legislative, executive and financial authority is divided between the Centre and State not by any law passed by the Centre but by Constitution itself. This is what the Indian Constitution does.
LEGISLATIVE   RELATIONS:- The Constitution of India makes two-fold distribution of legislative powers:-
1.    With respect to Territory.  2. With respect of subject-matter.
Territorial Jurisdiction:-  Article 245 of the constitution provides that, Parliament may make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India. Law made by the parliament shall not be deemed to be invalid on the ground that it has extra-territorial operation i.e. takes effect outside the territory of India. Case of A.H.Wadia v/s Income tax Commissioner Bombay-1949, court held that in the case of sovereign Legislature question of extra-territoriality of any enactment can never be raised in the municipal court as a ground for challenging its validity.”
Jurisdiction with respect of subject-matter:-  The constitution of India divides the Legislative powers between the Union & States in three lists :-
i)          Union List: - This list consists of 97 subjects. The subjects mentioned in the Union list are of national importance i.e. defence, foreign affairs, banking, currency and coinage, Union duties and taxes.
ii)        State List:- It consists 66 subjects but out of 66 four have been deleted by constitutional amendments. These are of local importance such as public order and police, local government, public health and sanitation agriculture forest fisheries education state taxes and duties. The state has the exclusive power to make laws on the above subjects.
iii)      Concurrent List: - This list contains 47 subjects. Some the new entries have also been made by constitutional amendments. Both centre and state can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. In case of any conflict between state and centre, the central law will prevail.
iv)      i) Legislative Power is plenary:-The power of the Legislative under article 245 to enact laws is a plenary power subject to its legislative competence and other constitutional limitations. The power to make law includes the power to give effect to it prospectively as well as retrospectively. The legislature has the power to alter the existing law and has power to validate a law retrospectively subject to constitutional limitations an ancillary power to legislate on the particular subject, as held in the case of Govt. of A.P.v/s Hindustan Machine Tools-1975.
iii)       Power of legislation declaring earlier decision invalid unconstitutional:-In the case of State of Haryana v/s Karnal Co-Operative Farmer’s Society-1993, it has been held by the court that legislature has power to render ineffective the earlier judicial decisions by removing or altering or neutralizing the legal basis in un amended law on which such decisions were founded but it does not have the power to render ineffective the earlier judicial decisions.
DISTRIBUTION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS:- It has pointed out that the distribution of legislative powers between the Centre and the States.  The nature of distribution varies according to the local and political background in each country. In American constitution enumerates the powers of the Central Government and leaving the residuary power to the States.
1.    The present constitution adopts the method followed by the Government of India Act 1935 and divides the powers between the union and States in three lists: - i) The Union List: consists of 97 subjects. The subjects are defence, foreign affairs, banking currency and coinage, union duties and taxes. Ii) State List: it consists 66 subjects but out of 66 four have been deleted by amendments. These are local Government, Public health and sanitation, agriculture, forest, fisheries and education.iii) The Concurrent List: it contains 47 subjects some of the new entries have also been made by amendment. Both centre and state make laws on the subjects mentioned in these lists, In case of any conflict the law made by Centre will be prevailed. In a case of Union of India v/s HS.Dhillon-1972.
2.    The Residuary Powers: - Art. 248 of the constitution vests the residuary powers in the Parliament. It says that the exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the concurrent list. According to it Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any matter not mentioned in the state list or the concurrent list including any tax not mentioned in either of three lists. Thus Indian Constitution is totally differing from USA, Switzerland and Australia where residuary powers are vested in the States. This reflects the leanings of the constitution makes towards a strong centre.






11. Discuss the scope and extent of the freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse under the constitution of India.
INTRODUCTION: - That the trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free. The freedom is guaranteed by the provisions made in art301 in widest forms and applies to all forms of trade, commerce and intercourse. It is subject to restrictions specified in article of the constitution. The word ‘trade’ means buying or selling of goods while the terms commerce includes all forms of transportation such as by land, air or water. Thus the words ‘trade, commerce and intercourse covered all kinds of activities which are likely to come under the nature of commerce.
DEFINITION OF TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE:- Article 301 of the constitution says, “Trade and commerce and intercourse among the States whether by means of internal carriage or ocean navigation shall be absolutely free.” The word absolutely free faces many difficulties so that is why in India the Constitution itself lays down restrictions on article 301. It is also mentioned here that the word ‘free’ in this article does not mean freedom from laws or regulations.
The object of Art.301:- The object of art.301 is the free movement and exchange of goods throughout the territory of India which is essential in the interest of economic unity of India. A case of Atibari Tea Co.Ltd., v/s State of Assam-1961.
In case of State of Mysore v/s Sanjeeviah-1967, the court held that the rule void as it was not a regulatory but restrictive measure which infringed the right guaranteed under article 301.
1. Power of Parliament t impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse:- Parliament may by law impose such restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse between one State and another or within any part of the territory of India as may required in the interest of pubic under article 302. A leading case of Suraj Mal Roop Chand and Co., v/s State of Rajasthan-1967.
2. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and States with regard to Trade & Commerce: - In art.302 neither the Parliament nor the legislature of a State shall have power to make any law, giving or authorizing the giving of any preference to one State over another or making of any discrimination between states by virtue of any entry relating to trade and commerce.
3. Restricions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States: - Art.304, (a) impose restrictions on goods imported from other States any tax to which similar goods manufactured or produced in that state. (b) Impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with or within state as may be required in the interest of public. A case of Automobile Transport Ltd., v/s State of Rajasthan-1962, provided that no amendment for the purposes of imposing reasonable restrictions shall be introduced in the legislature without the approval of the President.
4. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies: - Article 305 saves existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies in so far as the President may by order or directions as done in the case of Saghir Ahmad v/s State of U.P.-1964, it appears from the judgment of the Court that in spite of such amendment a law introducing such State monopolies might have to be justified before the courts as being in the public interest or amounting to a reasonable restrictions on trade & commerce under article 306 also.
5. Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of article-301:- As per provisions Parliament may by law appoint such authority as it consider appropriate for carrying out the purposes of article 301, 302, 303 and 304 and confer on the authority so appointed such powers and such duties as it thinks necessary.
CONCLUSION:- Keeping in view the facts mentioned above it is revealed that in all Federations an attempt is made through constitutional provisions to create and preserve a national economic fabric to remove and prevent local barriers to economic activity. To remove the hurdles in the way of Inter-State trade and commerce, Govt., should make the country as one single economic unit so that economic resources of all the various units may be utilized to the common advantage of all.

















12. Explain the repugnancy between Union Law and State Law. What tests have been laid down by the Supreme Court for determining the repugnancy between Union Law & State Law?
INTRODUCTION:- The repugnancy between Union Law and State Law applies where there is inconsistency between a Central Law and a State Law relating to a subject mentioned in Concurrent List. A similar position described in the case of M. Karunanidhi v/s Union of India-1979, the court reviewed all its earlier decisions and summarized the test of repugnancy.
DEFINITION:-  Article 254 of the Constitution of  India says that if any provision of law made by the Legislature of the State in repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which is competent to enact or to any provision of the existing law with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List, then the law made by the Parliament whether passed before or after the law made by legislature of such stage or as the case may be the existing law shall prevail and the law made by the legislature of the State shall to the extent of the repugnancy be void.
Repugnancy how arises between the two statutes: - It arises in the following situations:-
i)                It must be shown that there is clear and direct inconsistency between the two enactments i.e. central Act and State Act, which is irreconcilable so that they cannot stand together or operate in the same field.
ii)              There can be no repeal by implication unless the inconsistency appears on the face of two statutes.
iii)            Where two statutes occupy a particular field but there is a room or possibility of both the statutes operating in the same field without coming into collusion with each other, no repugnancy results.
iv)            Where there is no inconsistency but a statute occupying the same field seeks to create distinct and separate offences, no question of repugnancy arises and both the statutes continue to operate in the same field.
Tests which have been laid down by the Supreme Court for determining the repugnancy between Union Law & State Law:-
1. In M. Karunidhi’s case, The Supreme Court held that state act was not repugnant to the Central Acts and therefore it did not repeal the Central Act which continued to be in operation even after the repeal of the State Act and can be invoked for the purpose of prosecuting the appellant. The State Act creates distinct and separate offences with different ingredients and different punishments and does not in any way collide with central Acts.
2. In Deep Chand v/s State of U.P.-1959, the validity of the U.P. Transport services Act was involved. The State Government was authorized to make the scheme for Nationalization of Motor Transport in the State. The existing law did not contain any provision for the Nationalization of Motor Transport. The Parliament with a view to introduce a uniform law amended M.V. Act and added a new provision enabling the State Govt. to frame rules of nationalization of Motor Transport. The court held that since both the Union Law and the State Law occupied the same field, the State Law was void to the extent of repugnancy to the Union Law. 
3. In Zaverbhai v/s State of Bombay-1954, The Parliament enacted the Essential Supplies Act for regulating production, supply and distribution of essential commodities. A contravention of any provision of the above act was punishable with imprisonment up-to three years or fine or both. On considering the punishment inadequate, the Bombay Legislature passed an Act enhancing the punishment provided under the central law. The assent of the President received and thus prevailed over the Central Law. However later on the Parliament amended its act.  It was held by the Supreme Court that both occupied the same field, the State law become void as being repugnant to the Central Law.
 CONCLUSION:-  Where a law made by the legislature of a State with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the concurrent list contains any provision repugnant to the provisions of any earlier law made by Parliament or an existing law with respect to that matter then the law so made by the legislature of the State shall if it has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent prevail in that state.
                   From the gist of the above decisions, taken by the Supreme Court it is revealed that the Supreme Court has done an important role and judged the case impartial way by giving correct nature of justice.



13. Explain Doctrine of Pleasure with decided cases of Law.
INRODUCTION: - According to common law a civil servant holds his office during the pleasure of Crown. This means his services can be terminated at any time by the Crown without assigning any reason. Even if there is a contract of employment between the Crown. The Crown is not bound by it. In other words if a civil servant is dismissed from service he cannot claim arrears of salary or damages for premature termination of his services. The doctrine of pleasure is based on the public policy.
DEFINITION: - Article 310 of the Indian Constitution incorporates the Common Law doctrine of pleasure.  It expressly provides that all person who are members of the Defence services or Civil Service of Union or members of the State Services hold office during the pleasure of the President and the Governor respectively. It pertinent to quote here that the English law has not been fully adopted in this article.
      A civil servant in India could always sue the crown for arrears of salary as has been done in a case State of Bihar v/s Abdul Majid-1954, the rule is qualified by the opening words of Art.310 itself places restrictions and limitations on the exercise of the pleasure and is further limited by Art.311 (2).The services of the permanent govt. employee cannot be terminated except in accordance with the rules made under Art. 309 subject to the procedure laid down in art.311 (2) of the constitution and Fundamental Rights.
                 The above doctrine of pleasure is invoked by the Government in the public interest after attaining the age of 50 years by the Govt. servant or has completed 25 years of service. This is constitutionally permissible as compulsory termination of service. It does not amount to dismissal or removal by way of punishment. However the Govt. reserves its right under rule to compulsory retire a Govt. servant even against his wish.
                  There is a corresponding right of the Government servant under financial rules to voluntarily retire from service by giving three months notice. There is no condition of acceptance of the request for voluntary retirement by the Govt., when an employee exercises his right under financial rules as held in the case of Dinesh Chandra v/s State of Assam-1978.
                   Similarly under article 310 the government has the power to abolish a post.  However such an action whether executive or legislative is always subject to judicial review. The question whether a person whose services are terminated as a result of the abolition of post should be rehabilitated by giving alternative employment is matter of policy on which the court has not voice as held in the case of K. Rajendran v/s State of Tamil Nadu-1982.


                RESTRICTION ON DOCTRINE OF PLEASURE
The constitution of India laid down certain limitations on the exercise of doctrine of Pleasure, some of them are as under:-
1.    The pleasure of the President or the Governor is controlled by the provisions of Article 31, so the field covered by article 311 is excluded from the operation of the doctrine of pleasure as held in the case of Motiram v/s North Eastern Frontier Railway-1964, it was held that the pleasure must be exercised in accordance with the procedural safeguards provided in article 311.
2.    It ought to be mentioned here that the tenure of the Judges of Supreme Court, High Court, Auditor General of India, Chief Election Commissioner and members of the Public Service Commission are not dependent on the pleasure of the President or the Governor. These posts are expressly excluded from the operation of the doctrine of pleasure.
3.    The doctrine of pleasure is subject to the fundamental rights as held in a case of Union of India v/s P.D. More-1962.















14. Explain the Doctrine of Pith & Substance.  Also about Interstate Council.
INTRODUCTION:- Within their respective spheres the Union & State Legislature are made supreme and they should not encroach into the sphere reserved to the other.  If a law passed by one encroaches upon the field assigned to the other the court will apply the doctrine of pith and substance to determine whether the legislature concerned was competent to make it.
Definition:- Pith and substance of law i.e. the true object of the legislation or a statute relates to a matter with the competence of legislature which enacted it. It should be held to be intra-virus even though it incidentally trench on matter not within the competence of the legislation. In order to ascertain true character of the legislation one must have regard to the enactment as a whole to its object and to the scope and effect of its provisions as held in a case of A.S.Krishna v/s State of Madras-1957.
1.    The Privy Council applied the doctrine in Profula Kumar Mukerjee v/s Bank of Khulna-1947, in this case the validity of the Bengal Money Lenders Act-1946. The court held that the Bengal Money Lenders act was in, ‘pith and substance’ a law in respect of money lending and money lenders a state subject and was valid even though it trenched incidentally on Promissory Note.”
2.    In a case of State of Bombay v/s F.N. Balsara-1951, the Bombay Prohibition Act, which prohibited sale and possession of liquors in the state, was challenged on the ground that it incidentally encroached upon import and export of liquors across custom frontier. The court held that the act valid because the pith and substance of the act fell under the State List not under the Union list even though the Act incidentally encroached upon the Union Powers of Legislation.
3.    A case of Ishwari Khetal Sugar Mills v/s State of U.P.-1980, U.P.Sugar Undertaking Act-1971 was challenged on the ground that the State Legislature had no competence to enact the impugned law on the ground that it fell under Parliament legislative power. The court however rejected these contentions and held that there was no conflict between that state Act and the Central Act under Industries Act, 1951, the act being Pith and substance.
INTER-STATE COUNCIL
INTRODUCTION:- The main object behind this provision is to establish regular recognized machinery for inter-government consultation and inter-state relations so that departments or institution of co-ordination and research are to be maintained in such matters as agriculture, forestry, irrigation, education and public health. Inter-State council gives opportunity to the States to express their views freely on common matter and enable the Centre to understand the feelings of the States.
DEFINITION:- The President of India has exercised this power by consulting the Centre Council of Health and Central Council of Local Self-Government and  The State Re-Organization Act, has set up five Zonal Councils. The Zonal Councils consists Union Home Minister as ex-officio-Chairman, Chief Minister of the State and two other ministers nominated by the Governor of the member state and one person as advisor from Planning Commission and Chief Secretary of the State. These councils have been established for the promotion of Co-operation and for making the efforts to solve common problems of the member states.
Establishment of Inter-State Council: - The President of India in exercise of his powers under article 263 has constituted the Inter-State Council on May 28, 1990. The Prime Minister shall be the Chairman of the Inter-State Council and preside over its meeting. In his absence he may nominate any Union Minister of Cabinet Rank to preside over the meeting.
Procedure of the Council: - The council shall in the conduct of its business observe the following procedure: - 1.The council shall adopt guidelines for identifying and selecting issues to be brought before it. 2. Council may meet thrice in a year at time and place as Chairman decides & will hold under camera. 3. The members and the Chairman shall form questions to be discussed in the meeting. 4. The council however may observe such other procedure as it may with the approval of the Central Government from time to time.
Duties of the Council: - The council shall be a recommendatory body and it shall perform the following duties:-1.Investigate and discuss subjects of common interest. 2. Make recommendations for the better co-ordination of policy and actions on such subjects. 3. Delibrate on such matters of general interest to the States referred by the Chairman to the Council.




UNIT-IV
15. Discuss the procedure of amendment of the Constitution. Can Parliament amend the basic structure of Indian Constitution? Refer to case law.
INTRODUCTION: - Amendment of the constitution n is made with a view to overcome the difficulties which may encounter in future in working of the Constitution. No generation has monopoly of wisdom not has it a right to place fetters on future generations to mould the machinery of government according to their requirements. If no provisions were made for the amendment of the Constitution, the people would have recourse to extra constitutional method like revolution to change the Constitution as it has been done in the case of Keshwanand Bharti v/s State of Kerla-1973.
PROCEDURE OF AMENDMENT OF CONSTITUTION:- It is pertinent to mention here that the machinery of amendment should be like a safety valve, so devised as neither to operate the machine with two great facilities nor to require, in order to set in motion an accumulation of force sufficient to explode it. Thus we can safely say that the Indian federation will not suffer from the fault of rigidity of legislation because it has the features of his flexibility. In  Art. 368 it laid down that bill o amend the constitution may be introduced in either of House of Parliament. It must be passed by each House by a majority of the total membership to that House present and voting. When the bill is passed by both Houses it shall be presented to President for his assent and after the assent of the President the bill the constitution stand amended. For the purpose of amendment the various articles of the constitution are divided into three categories:-
1.    Amendment by simple Majority:- Articles that can be amended by the Parliament by a simple majority as that required for passing of any ordinary law. The amendments contemplated in Articles 5, 169 and 239A can be made by simple majority.  These articles are specifically excluded from the purview of the procedure prescribed in article 368.
2.    Amendment by special majority: - The article 368 also provides some articles which can be amended by a special majority. All constitutional amendments except article 5, 169 and 239A come within this category and must be effected by majority of the total membership of each House of Parliament as well as by a majority of not less than 2/3 of the members of that House present and voting.
3.    By special majority and Ratification by States:- Articles which require in addition to the special majority ratification by not less than ½ of the State Legislature. The states are given an important voice in the amendments of these matters. These are fundamental matters where states have power under the constitution.  The following provisions require ratification by the States:-
i)                Election of President under art. 54 and 55.
ii)              Extent of Executive powers of Union & States articles 73, 162.
iii)             Articles dealing with judiciary Supreme Court, High Courts in the States and Union Territories i.e. 124 to 147, 214 to 231 and 241.
iv)            Distribution of Legislative powers between the Centre and State 245 to 255.
v)              Article of 368 also.
Can Parliament amend the basic structure of Indian Constitution
1. In Golak Nath v/s State of Punab-1971 & Shankri Parsad v/s Sajjan singh cases, the court held that Parliament had no power from the date of decision to amend Part III of the constitution so as to take away or abridge the fundamental rights.
2. In Keshavanand Bharti v/s State of Kerla-1973, the petitioner contended that the amending power was wide but not unlimited u/a368, the court by majority overruled the Golak nath case but held that under article 368, Parliament is not empowered to amend the basic structure or framework of the constitution.
 3. As regards the scope of amending power contained in Art.368 the six Judges held that there are implied limitations on the amending power of Parliament and art.368 does not confer power to amend the constitution so as to damage or destroy the essential elements or basic features of the constitution.
4. In Minerva Mills v/s Union of India-1980, Supreme Court by 4 to 1 majority struck down clause 4 and 5 of article 368 on the ground that these clauses destroyed the essential feature of the basic structure of constitution.














Question No.16: Write notes on Financial Emergency & Election of Panchayat.
FINANCIAL EMERGENCY:- INTRODUCTION: - . Sometimes such a critical situations arisen whereby the financial position or the creditability of India becomes worst and to tackle such situations if the President of India satisfied himself that the time has come whereby  he may by a proclamation make a declaration to this effect.
WHAT IS FINANCIAL EMERGENCY:- Article 360 of the constitution of India provides that if the President of India is satisfied that situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or part of the territory thereof is threatened, he may by a proclamation make a declaration of Financial Emergency in the State.
 The 44th. Amendment the article 360 makes self-contained with the following:-
1.    That the proclamation of financial emergency shall cease to be in operation at the expiry of two months unless it has been approved by both Houses of Parliament.
2.    That such a proclamation may be revoked or varied by the President by a subsequent proclamation.
3.    That if the Lok Sabha is dissolved during the period of two months and resolution is approved by the Rajya Sabha but not by the Lok Sabha the proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiry of 30 days, from the date on which the new Lok Sabha sits.
4.    During the period when such proclamation is in operation the executive authority of the Union shall extend to the giving directions to any State to observe such canons of financial propriety.
5.    Any such direction may include a provision for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in a State including the Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
6.    It may also require that all Money or Financial Bills are to be reserved for the consideration of the President after they are passed by Legislature of State.
CONCLUSION: The constitution of India is unique in respect that it contains a complete scheme for speedy re-adjustment of the peace-time government machinery in movements of national peril. These provisions may appear to be particularly in a constitution which professes to be built upon a large building of fundamental rights and democracy. India had her in glorious days whenever central power grew weak, the constitution guard’s stands against the forces of disintegration.
                                  




ELECTION OF PANCHAYAT
INTRODUCTION:- The constitution of India in its provisions has laid down directions for the preparation of electoral rolls and to conduct of all elections to the Panchayats shall be vested in a State Election Commission consisting of State Election Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor subject to conditions laid down in the law.
        PROVISIONS AND PROCESS OF PANCHAYAT ELECTION
Article 243K provides that superintendence direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for and the conduct of all elections to the Panchayats shall be vested in a State Election Commission consisting of a State Election Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor of the State.
1.    The above instructions are subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of a State, the conditions of service and tenure of office of the state Election Commissioner shall be such as the Governor may by rule determine.
2.    The state Legislature may subject to the provisions of the Constitution by law make provision with respect to all matters relating to or in connection with elections to the Panchayat.
3.    The Governor of State shall when so requested by the Election Commission to provide staff as may be necessary for the discharge of its functions.
4.    Election in Union Territories: - The President may however by public notification direct that the provisions of shall apply to any Union territory.
5.    Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats:- All the Panchayats existing immediately before such government shall continue till the expiration of third duration unless sooner dissolved by resolution passed by the legislature Assembly of that State.
6.    Courts not to interfere in electoral matters:-Article 243-O bars the interference by Courts in electoral matters of panchayats. It provides that anything in this constitution the validity of any law relating to determination of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies made under Article 243K shall not be called in question in any court.






17. Discuss the various grounds of proclamation of Emergency in India. Also explain the consequences of such proclamation.
INTRODUCTION: - Proclamation of emergency can be made even before the actual occurrences of the event contemplated in the constitution have taken place. One of the chief characteristic of the Indian Constitution is the way in which the normal federal constitution can be adopted to emergency situation. It is the merit of the constitution that it visualizes the circumstances when the strict application of the federal principles might destroy the basic assumptions on which constitution built.
Types of Emergency:- The constitution of India provides for three types of emergency:-
1.          National Emergency: due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion under Article 352 of the constitution.
2.          State Emergency: due to failure of constitutional machinery in the States under article 356 of the constitution.
3.          Financial Emergency: provided under article 360 of the constitution.
1. NATIONAL EMERGENCY: - Article 352 provides that if the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or any part of India is threatened either by war or external aggression or by armed rebellion he may make a Proclamation of Emergency in respect of the whole of India or any part of India as may be specified in the Proclamation.
2. The President shall not issue a Proclamation unless the decision of the Union cabinet i.e. Council consisting of Prime Minister and other ministers of cabinet rank to suggest that such proclamation may be issued.
3. This means that the emergency can be declared only on concurrence of the cabinet and not merely on the advice of the Prime Minister as was done by Mrs Indira Gandhi in June, 1975.
4. The Proclamation of Emergency must be laid down before each House and it shall cease to be in operation at the expiration of one month.
5. The Proclamation of Emergency once approved by Parliament shall remain in force for a period of six months from the date of passing of the resolution.
Grounds:-a. Threatened either by war or external aggression b. armed rebellion.
Effects of Proclamation of Emergency:-1.Extension of Centre’s Power (353) the executive power of the Union extends to giving of directions to any State. 2. Parliament empowered to legislate on the State subjects under art. 353(b):Union Parliament is empowered to make laws with respect to any of the matters in State List. 3. Centre empowered to alter distribution of revenue between Union & State354:Every such order is to be laid before each House of Parliament till cease of emergency.4.Suspension of Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Art.19: Six fundamental rights under art.358 shall remain suspended during emergency period.5.Extension of life of Lok Sabha: during emergency the President may extend the normal life of Lok Sabha by a year each time.
STATE EMERGENCY:-Art.356says that if the President on receipt of a report from the Governor of a state or otherwise satisfied that a situation has arisen in which Govt. of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of constitution,  he may issue a Proclamation which results that:1.President may assume all powers vested in or exercisable by the Governor or to anybody or authority in the state.2.That the powers of the legislature of the state shall be exercised by the Parliament. In 1959 President Rule imposed in Kerla in Peculiar circumstances. In 1967 in Haryana and in 1975 in Nagaland the President Rule was imposed. In1976 in Gujrat. Nine Assemblies Dissolution in 1977 and similarly in 1980 also and were asked to obtain fresh mandate. President Rule in Goa in 1998 due to defection of 10 MLA’s from Congress Party. President Rule in Bihar in 1999, revoked and not approved by Parliament because of two successive massacres of Dalits. President Rule in Bihar in 2005, as no party had the required majority of 122MLA’s in 243 member Assembly. President Rule in Karnataka-2007, in Nagaland in 2008, in Jharkhan in 2009 and in Meghalaya in 2009.
FINANCIAL EMERGENCY:- Article 360 provides that if the President is satisfied that the situation as arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or part of the territory thereof threatened he may by a Proclamation make a declaration to that effect. 44th. amendment makes art.360 self-contained; it provides that the proclamation of financial emergency shall cease to be in operation at the expiry of two months unless it has been approved by both Houses of Parliament. Such a proclamation is revoked or varied by the President by a subsequent proclamation but if the Lok Sabha is dissolved during two months then it will approve by Rajya Sabha but not by the Lok Sabha the proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiry of 30 days from the date on which new lok Sabha sits. During the period of Financial Emergency executive of Union shall extend to giving direction to any State. Any sch directions may include a provision for the reduction of salaries of any class of persons serving in State including the Judges of S.Court and High Courts. All Money or finance bills are to be considered by President after these are passed by the Legislature of State.
The duration of a proclamation of financial emergency will be in operation for two months and unless approved by President it shall cease to operate at the expiry of two month’s period. Our constitution is unique in respect of speedy re-adjustment of the peace-time. Constitution which professes to be built upon an edifice of fundamental rights and democracy.



                                                 UNIT – V
Doctrine of Pith & Substance
Definition:- Pith and substance of law i.e. the true object of the legislation or a statute relates to a matter with the competence of legislature which enacted it. It should be held to be intra-virus even though it incidentally trench on matter not within the competence of the legislation. In order to ascertain true character of the legislation one must have regard to the enactment as a whole to its object and to the scope and effect of its provisions as held in a case of A.S.Krishna v/s State of Madras-1957.
1.    The Privy Council applied the doctrine in Profula Kumar Mukerjee v/s Bank of Khulna-1947, in this case the validity of the Bengal Money Lenders Act-1946. The court held that the Bengal Money Lenders act was in, ‘pith and substance’ a law in respect of money lending and money lenders a state subject and was valid even though it trenched incidentally on Promissory Note.”
2.    In a case of State of Bombay v/s F.N. Balsara-1951, the Bombay Prohibition Act, which prohibited sale and possession of liquors in the state, was challenged on the ground that it incidentally encroached upon import and export of liquors across custom frontier. The court held that the act valid because the pith and substance of the act fell under the State List not under the Union list even though the Act incidentally encroached upon the Union Powers of Legislation.
3.    A case of Ishwari Khetal Sugar Mills v/s State of U.P.-1980, U.P.Sugar Undertaking Act-1971 was challenged on the ground that the State Legislature had no competence to enact the impugned law on the ground that it fell under Parliament legislative power. The court however rejected these contentions and held that there was no conflict between that state Act and the Central Act under Industries Act, 1951, the act being Pith and substance.








                                          Ordinance Making Power
                                                 (Under article: 123)
i)                The President can also promulgate ordinances during the recess of the Parliament. Ordinance is an emergent legislation. If legislation is warranted at a time when the legislature is not in session, the President on the request of the executive can issue an ordinance having the force and effect of an Act.
ii)               However every such ordinance must be laid before both the Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate, on the expiry of six weeks from the date of is reassembly, unless approved by the Parliament. The ordinance also becomes in operative if before the expiry of six weeks a resolution is passed by Parliament against it.
iii)            The ordinance may be withdrawn by the President at any time. Over and above the President of India have the powers to constitute the Parliament partially by virtue of his powers to nominate members to both the Houses of the Parliament.
iv)            The ordinance making power of the President is co-extensive with the legislative power of the Parliament.
v)              The validity of the ordinance making power of the President had been challenged in a number of cases and the court has upheld is constitutionally in its decisions. In a case of S.K.Garg v/s Union of India-1981.
vi)            Ordinance making power is to enable the executive o deal with the unforeseen or urgent matters which might well include a situation created by a law being decared void by a court of Law. In a case
vii)          of A.K.Roy v/s Union of India-1982, it was held that the ordinance was valid and not violative  of Art.14











                                   DOCTRINE OF  PLEASURE.
INRODUCTION: - According to common law a civil servant holds his office during the pleasure of Crown. This means his services can be terminated at any time by the Crown without assigning any reason. Even if there is a contract of employment between the Crown. The Crown is not bound by it. In other words if a civil servant is dismissed from service he cannot claim arrears of salary or damages for premature termination of his services. The doctrine of pleasure is based on the public policy.
DEFINITION: - Article 310 of the Indian Constitution incorporates the Common Law doctrine of pleasure.  It expressly provides that all person who are members of the Defence services or Civil Service of Union or members of the State Services hold office during the pleasure of the President and the Governor respectively. It pertinent to quote here that the English law has not been fully adopted in this article.
      A civil servant in India could always sue the crown for arrears of salary as has been done in a case State of Bihar v/s Abdul Majid-1954, the rule is qualified by the opening words of Art.310 itself places restrictions and limitations on the exercise of the pleasure and is further limited by Art.311 (2).The services of the permanent govt. employee cannot be terminated except in accordance with the rules made under Art. 309 subject to the procedure laid down in art.311 (2) of the constitution and Fundamental Rights.
                 The above doctrine of pleasure is invoked by the Government in the public interest after attaining the age of 50 years by the Govt. servant or has completed 25 years of service. This is constitutionally permissible as compulsory termination of service. It does not amount to dismissal or removal by way of punishment. However the Govt. reserves its right under rule to compulsory retire a Govt. servant even against his wish.
                  There is a corresponding right of the Government servant under financial rules to voluntarily retire from service by giving three months notice. There is no condition of acceptance of the request for voluntary retirement by the Govt., when an employee exercises his right under financial rules as held in the case of Dinesh Chandra v/s State of Assam-1978.
                   Similarly under article 310 the government has the power to abolish a post.  However such an action whether executive or legislative is always subject to judicial review. The question whether a person whose services are terminated as a result of the abolition of post should be rehabilitated by giving alternative employment is matter of policy on which the court has not voice as held in the case of K. Rajendran v/s State of Tamil Nadu-1982.


PARLIAMENTARY PRIVILEGES
The constitutional provisions regarding privileges of the State Legislature and Parliament are identical. While the article 105 deals with the privileges of Parliament whereas Act 194 deals with the privileges of State Legislature. There are two privileges:-
1.Freedom of Speech :- That there shall be freedom of speech in parliament and that no member of parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof under the article 105 of the constitution.
                  This act gives absolute immunity from courts for anything said within the four walls of the House and if a member repeats or publishes a defamatory speech made by him within the House, he does so, on his own responsibility and risk and held for prosecution under Sec.500 IPC.
                 Art.121 prohibits any discussion in Parliament with respect to the conduct of a Judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court in discharge of his duties. Under rule 349 to 356 of Lok Sabha use of unparliamentarily language or unparliamentarily conduct of a member is prohibited
2. Right of Publication of its Proceedings: - That no Member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceeding in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof and no person shall be liable in respect of publication by or under the authority of either on the basis of provisions laid down in article 105(2). In a case of Surendra v/s Nebakrishna-1958, who was an editor of a newspaper, was held guilty of committing contempt of court for publishing a statement of the House. It was held that there were many advantages to the public which has the deepest interest in knowing what passes in Parliament.
                    The object of the protection is to enable the members to speak their mind in Parliament freely and fearlessly. The court held that the MP’s who had taken bribe and voted in Parliament against no confidence motion brought against the Narsimba Rao government are entitled to the protection of Art. 105(2). The Parliamentary Proceedings Act-1956 was passed which provides that no person shall be liable to any proceeding civil or criminal in any court in respect of the publication of the report of the proceedings of either House of Parliament unless it is proved that publication of such proceeding expressly ordered to be expunged by the speaker.





WHAT IS POSITION OF PRESIDENT INDIA.
Introduction: - The President of India is the head of state of the Republic of India. The President is the formal head of the executive, legislature and judiciary of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian President has to appoint the Prime Minister of India. The President also appoints the Council of Ministers and with the Prime Minister’s advice he/she distributes the portfolios to the Council of Ministers. The President is also accountable to make a wide range of appointments. The president can assign governors of States, Attorney General, Chief Justice, Chief Election Commissioner, Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries.The followings are the powers of President:-
The Executive powers: - Art 53 of the constitution lies down that the executive power of the union shall be vested in the President.
Legislative powers:- The President of India is an integral part of the Union Parliament. The Parliament cannot function without involving him. Because he alone can summon and prorogue the Houses of Parliament.
Military Powers:-i) The constitution vests the Supreme Command of the Defence Force in the President of India. As such he makes all important appointments in the Defence Force including the Chief of the three wings the Armed Force, the Air Force and the Naval Force.
5. Diplomatic Powers:-  The President enjoys wide diplomatic powers or powers over foreign or external affairs.
6. Judicial Powers:- The President of India as head of the executive enjoys some judicial powers. He can grant pardons, reprieves or respites or remission of punishment. He can suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence in cases where the punishment is by a court martial or death sentence.
Financial Powers:- i) With regard to his powers in the field of finance the constitution provides that all money bills will need his consent. ii) He is empowered to order for the presentation of the report of the Auditor General of India relating to the accounts of the Government of India. Sometimes some awkward situations may demand very tough action or the part of the chief executive. v)  The President of India has been given some extraordinary powers to deal with such emergent situation.
7. Emergency powers: - i) The makers of the Indian constitution were influenced by the relevant provisions of the Government India Act, 1935 ii) In the Constitution
There are 3types of emergencies: National, State & Financial emergencies.







                                
PARDONING POWER OF PRESIDENT OF INDIA
 Under Article 72, President of India has power to grant pardons reprieves, respites, or remission of Punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence i.e. By Court Martial or by an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends or in all the cases in which the sentence is one of death.
                           The object of conferring the judicial power on t he President is to correct possible judicial errors for no human system of judicial administration can be free from imperfection. A pardon completely absolves the offender from all sentences and punishments and disqualifications and places him in the same position as if he had never committed the offence.
                          Commutation means exchange of one thing for another.  Hiere it means substitution of one form of punishment for another of a lighter character such as for rigorous imprisonment to simple imprisonment. Remission means reduction of the amount of sentence without changing its character for example sentence of one year may be remitted to six months. Respite means awarding a lesser punishment on some special grounds like the pregnancy of a woman offender. Reprieve means temporary suspension of death sentence e.g. pending a proceeding for pardon or commutation.

         In the case of Nanawati’s -1961, The Supreme Court held that in view of the language of article 72 and 161 which was similar to that used in sec. 295 of the Act-1935 therefore the pardoning power can be exercised before, during or after trial. In Maru ram v/s Union of India-1981, the power to pardon is exercised by the President on the advice of the Council of Minister.
















                         ADVISORY JURISDICTION OF SUPREME COURT
                 Article 143 of the constitution provides that if at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen or is likely to arise and a question of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it he may refer the question for the Advisory opinion of the Court and the Court may after such hearing as it thinks fit report to the President.
               Under the rule the President refers to the Supreme Court  the matters which are excluded from its jurisdiction under the provision to Art. 131 the court shall bound to give its opinion.
               The Supreme Court of India like the Canadian Supreme Court exercises the powers to give advisory opinion to the President.  The Government of India Act, 1935 empowered the Governor-General to consult the Court. There are number of cases which have been sent to the Supreme Court for his advisory opinion, however some of the important cases are under:-
i)                Delhi Law Act-1951.
ii)              In Re Kerala Education Bill.
iii)            In Re Berubari case.
iv)            In Re Presidential Bill in 1974
v)              In Re Special Court Bill 1978.
vi)            Ayodhya Dispute case.    


















                              INDEPENDENCE OF JUDICIARY
Only an impartial and independent judiciary can protect the rights of the individual and provide equal justice without fear or favour.  It is therefore very essential that the Supreme Court should be allowed to perform its functions in an atmosphere of independence and be free from all kinds of political pressures. For this issue the constitution has made the following provisions to ensure independence of judiciary.
1.    Security of Tenure: - The judges of the Supreme Court have security of tenure and they cannot remove from office except by an order of the President by adopting the set procedure laid down in the constitution.
2.    Salary of Judges fixed not subject to vote of Legislature: - The salary and allowances of the judges of the Supreme Court are fixed by the constitution and being paid from Consolidated Fund of India. Salary cannot be altered.
3.    Parliament can extend but cannot curtain the jurisdiction and power of the Supreme Court:- To work more effectively the Parliament may enhance the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in civil cases, here the point to be noted that in all the provisions the Parliament an exceed, but cannot curtail the jurisdiction and power of the Supreme Court under article 138.
4.    No discussion in Legislature on the conduct of Judges:- Neither in Parliament not in a State Legislature a discussion can take place with respect to the conduct of a judge of the Supreme Court in discharge of his duties  under article121.
5.    Power to punish for its contempt:- The supreme Court and the High Court have the power to punish any person for its contempt under article 129 and 215, this power is very essential for maintaining the impartiality and independence of the Judiciary.
6.    Separation of judiciary from executive:- States have been directed by the constitution through article 50 to take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the interest of public service of the State.
7.    Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Executive with the consultation of Legal experts:-Executive cannot appoint the Judges without the consultation of the Judges of the Supreme Court as provided in Art. 124(2).
8.    Prohibition on practice after retirement:- Under article 124(7) of the constitution a retired Judge of the supreme Court is prohibited to appear and plead in any court or before any authority within the territory of India.





                                   ROLE OF GOVERNOR OF STATE
                The Governor being the executive head, all executive actions are taken in his name.  He is to act on the advice of his Council of Ministers. The Governor is no doubt vested with considerable powers but as a matter of convention he is not expected to exercise these powers to the detriment of the State.  He is a constitutional Governor and is therefore the constitutional Head of the State.
 Appointment of a Governor: - The Governor of a State is appointed by the President of India as provided in article 155.  He is neither elected by the direct vote of the people nor by an indirect vote by a specially constituted Electoral College as in the case with the President. He is a nominee of the Central Government.
Tenure and Removal of a Governor:- Article 156  of the Constitution says that the Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President subject to this rule. The tenure of the Governor is fixed for five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. Governor is to exercise of pleasure of the President. Thus it lies within the power of the President to terminate in his discretion the term of Governor.
Role of Governor: -1.  Governor appoints Ministers and they hold office during his pleasure as provided in article 164.
2.    The Governor has a right of opening address, of addressing and sending messages to and of summoning, proroguing and dissolving the Legislature, just as the President has under article 174-176.
3.    He has the power to cause the annual financial statement to be laid before the State Legislature as in article 202 and making demands for grants and recommending Money Bills as provided in article 207(1).
4.    He has the power of making Ordinances during the recess of the Legislature and power of vetoing State Bills.
5.    He has the power to reserve the State Bills for the consideration of the President.
     










How the Impeachment of the President is initiated?
Introduction:- The President of India can be removed from the office for violation of the constitution by impeachment. Such a motion of impeachment can be initiated by any House of Parliament In such a case one fourth of the members, of the house, intending to move such a motion have to serve a fourteen days notice in writing. After the completion of the stipulated period the motion is discussed and put to vote.
If two-thirds of the members support the motion that it is passed for consideration of the other House. The other House on receiving the motion investigates the changes. The President is allowed the opportunity to present his defence either in person or through his nominee. If the House despite the defence supports the motion by two-thirds majority the President stands impeached.
The President of India is entitled to certain legal immunity during his tenure. He is not answerable to any court of law while discharging his responsibilities. He cannot be arrested or imprisoned in connection with any civil or criminal case. However civil suits may be instituted against him by serving at least two months notice.
Definition of Impeachment:- Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to remove a Government official without that official's agreement. The second stage is conviction.
Impeachment is so rare that the term can be misunderstood. A typical misconception is to confuse it with involuntary removal from office. In fact, it is only a legal statement of charges, paralleling an indictment in criminal law. An official who is impeached faces a second legislative vote (whether by the same body or another), which determines conviction, or failure to convict, on the charges embodied by the impeachment. Most Constitutions require a supermajority to convict. The word "impeachment" derives from Latin roots expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, and has analogues in the modern French verb empĂȘcher (to prevent) and the modern English impede .
The process should not be confused with a recall election. A recall election is usually initiated by voters and can be based on "political charges", for example mismanagement, whereas impeachment is initiated by a constitutional body (usually a legislative body) and is usually based, but not always, on indictable offences. The process of removing the official is also different.
Impeachment is a British invention. Following the British example, the Constitutions of Virginia (1776) and Massachusetts (1780) and other States thereafter adopted the impeachment doctrine. In private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges.
Procedure for impeachment of the President:- Under Article 61,  (1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament.
(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless-
(a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days' notice in writing, signed by not less than 1/4th of the total number of members of the House, has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and
(b) Such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the total membership of the House.
(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.
(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed."
Conclusion:- The word 'Impeachment' is an origin of British convention which means to remove a Government official without any official agreement and after the impeachment conviction has been provided to that official. In India, it is a quasi-judicial procedure and President can only be impeached on the ground of violation of the Constitution.




1.     Qualification and disqualification of the member of Rajya Sabha ? 
Introduction:- The ‘Council of States’ which is also known as Rajya Sabha, a nomenclature that was announced by the chair in the House on the 23rd August, 1954 has its own distinctive features. The origin of the second Chamber can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918. The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921. The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State. The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.
 The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’.  During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Asse
.mbly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with immense diversities.  A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.  A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.  It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the Lok Sabha (House of the People).  It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which  States were not given equal representation.  Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.  The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.  The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha who presides over its sittings.
Qualifications :- Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.  A person to be qualified for the membership of the Rajya Sabha should posses the following qualifications:
1.    he must be a citizen of India
2.    he must be not less than 30 years of age;
3.    he must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in Parliament.
Disqualifications :- Article 102 of the Constitution lays down that a person shall be disqualified for being chosen a member of either House of Parliament –
1.    if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State.
2.    if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;
3.    if he is an undischarged insolvent;
4.    if he is not a citizen of India.
5.    if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament. 
A member nominated to the House by the President, however, is allowed to join a political party if he/she does so within the first six months of taking seat in the House.
A member shall not be disqualified on this account, if he voluntarily leaves the membership of his political party after he is elected Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha.
Process for Election/Nomination
Electoral College: The representatives of the States and of the Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the method of indirect election.  The representatives of each State and two Union territories are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of that State and by the members of the Electoral College for that Union Territory.
Biennial/Bye-election:- Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and is not subject to dissolution.  However, one-third Members of Rajya Sabha retire after every second year.  A member who is elected for a full term for a period of six years.  A member elected in a bye-election remains member for the remaining term of the member who had resigned or died or disqualified to be member of the House under the Tenth Schedule.
Conclusion :- Rajya Sabha has played a constructive and effective role in our politics.  Its performance in the legislative field and in influencing the Government policies has been quite significant.  Rajya Sabha has, in fact, worked in a spirit of cooperation with Lok Sabha as per the Constitutional mandate.  Rajya Sabha has prevented hasty legislation and has served as dignified chamber representing the federal principle.  As a federal chamber, it has worked for the unity and integrity of the nation and has reinforced the faith of the people in parliamentary democracy.










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